Vedânta-Sûtras: Part II
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The Brahma sutras consists of aphoristic verses sutras in four chapters. The Brahmasutra is one of three most important texts in Vedanta along with the Principal Upanishads and the Bhagavad Gita. The Brahma Sutras or Brahmasutra are attributed to Badarayana. The Brahma-sutra text is dated to centuries that followed Buddha and Mahavira , because it mentions and critiques the ideas of Buddhism and Jainism in Chapter 2. Hermann Jacobi in early 20th century suggested that Madhyamaka Buddhist concepts such as Sunyavada , acknowledged in the Brahma-sutras, may be a late invention, and suggests that both Sunyavada and Brahma-sutras may therefore have emerged between CE.
Some scholars, such as Sengaku Mayeda, state Brahmasutra that has survived into the modern times may be the work of multiple authors but those who lived after Badarayana, and that these authors composed the currently surviving Brahmasutra starting about BCE through about CE. Natalia Isaeva states, "on the whole, scholars are rather unanimous, considering the most probable date for Brahmasutra sometime between the 2nd-century BCE and the 2nd-century CE.
The Brahmasutra text has Adhikaranas. Sutras were meant to assist the memory of the student who had gone through long discussions with his guru, as memory aids or clues and maximum thoughts were compressed in a few words which were unambiguous, giving the essence of the arguments on the topic. The Brahmasutra, states Sengaku Mayeda, distills and consolidates the extensive teachings found in a variety of Upanishads of Hinduism, summarizing, arranging, unifying and systematizing the Upanishadic theories.
The text reviews and critiques most major orthodox schools of Hindu philosophy as well as all heterodox Indian philosophies such as Buddhism, with the exception of Samkhya and Yoga philosophies which it holds in high regards and recurrently refers to them in all its four chapters, adding in sutras 2. The sutras of the Brahmasutra are aphorisms, which Paul Deussen states to be "threads stretched out in weaving to form the basis of the web", and intelligible "when the woof is added" with a commentary. The first chapter is regarded in Vedanta tradition as Samanvaya Harmony , because it distills, synchronizes and brings into a harmonious whole the seemingly diverse and conflicting passages in various Sruti texts.
This Brahmasutra chapter asserts that all the Upanishads primarily aim and coherently describe the knowledge and meditation of Brahman , the ultimate reality. The only source for the knowledge of this Brahman is the Sruti or the Upanishads. The sutras 1. The remaining sutras in Pada 1. The first chapter in sutras 1. The second Brahmasutra chapter has been variously interpreted by various monist, theistic and other sub-schools of Vedanta. The Pada 2. The Brahmasutra asserts in 2. The sutras in Pada 2. The atomistic physico-theological theories of Vaisheshika and Samkhya school are the focus of the first seventeen sutras of Pada 2.
The theories of other orthodox traditions are discussed in 2. The first eight case studies in the third Pada of chapter 2 discuss whether the world has an origin or not, whether the universe is co-eternal with Brahman or is an effect of Brahman interpreted as dualistic God in theistic sub-schools of Vedanta , and whether the universe refunds into Brahman periodically.
The last Pada of the second chapter extracts and summarizes the theories of human body, sensory organs, action organs and their relationship to Prana vital breath in the various Vedic Brahmanas and Upanishads. The topics discussed are diverse.
The Vedanta Sutras Part II : F Max Muller :
The third Brahmasutra chapter focuses on the nature of spiritual knowledge and epistemic paths to it. Sections 3. The third pada , states George Thibaut, opens a new section and theme in chapter 3 of the Brahma-sutras, asserting that meditation is central to the Vedic texts, and summarizing the Vedic theories, from different Shakha Vedic schools , on "how the individual soul is enabled by meditation on Brahman to obtain final release". Meditation is defined in Vedanta texts commenting on the Sutras, states Klaus Witz, as "a continuous succession of comparable basic conceptions, beliefs, not interspersed with dissimilar ones, which proceeds according to the scriptures and relates to an object enjoined in the scriptures".
The Brahma-sutra, in Adhikaranas of third and fourth pada, states Thibaut, assert that there is no contradiction in these teachings and that "the different Upanishads have to be viewed as teaching the same matter, and therefore the ideas must be combined in one meditation". And for this very reason there is no need of the lighting of the fire and so on. In sutras 3. The sutras, translates Thibaut, derive from the Vedic texts that there is "a prohibition of doing harm to any living creature", however, the scriptures state, "only in danger of life, in cases of highest need, food of any kind is permitted to be eaten".
The last three sutras of the chapter 3 assert that a person, pursuing means to spiritual knowledge, should seek a childlike state of innocence, a psychological state that is free of anger, self centeredness, pride and arrogance. Fourth chapter Phala : the fruit : talks of the state that is achieved in final emancipation.
This is the shortest chapter with 78 sutras and 38 adhikaranas. The opening sutras of chapter 4 continue the discussion of meditation as means to knowledge, with sutra 4. The Self whose true nature has manifested itself is released; according to the promise made by scripture. The light into which the soul enters is the Self, owing to the subject-matter of the chapter. The released soul abides in non-division from the highest Self Brahman , because that is seen. The liberated soul, asserts the Brahma-sutra, is of the nature of Brahman, with inner power and knowledge, free from evil, free from grief, free from suffering, one of bliss and "for such there is freedom in all worlds".
Numerous commentaries have been written on the Brahma-sutra text, but many such as that of Bodhayana, [note 7] Upavarsa, [note 8] and eighteen out of twenty one mentioned by Narayana in Madhvavijaya-bhava-prakashika are considered lost. The diversity of Brahma-sutra commentaries by various sub-schools of Hinduism see table attests to the central importance of the Upanishads, that the text summarizes.
Gaudiya Vaishnavism. The sutras in the text can be, and have been read in different ways. The text is part of the Prasthanatrayi , or the three starting points for the Vedanta school of Hindu philosophy. The nature and influence of Brahma-sutra, states Paul Deussen, "stands to the Upanishad's in the same relation as the Christian Dogmatics to the New Testament: it investigates their teaching about God, the world, the soul, in its conditions of wandering and of deliverance, removes apparent contradictions of the doctrines, binds them systematically together, and is specially concerned to defend them against the attacks of the opponents".
The Vedas, according to Vedanta, consists of two parts, states Deussen, which show "far reaching analogy with the Old and New Testaments", a Part of Works karma-kanda which includes the benedictory mantras , sacrifices and ceremonies like the Old Testament, and a Part of Knowledge jnana-kanda which focuses on metaphysical questions about the world, creator, soul, theology, morals and virtues like the New Testament.
The impact of Brahma-sutra text on Vedanta, and in turn Hinduism, has been historic and central, states Nakamura: . The prevalence of Vedanta thought is found not only in philosophical writings but also in various forms of Hindu literature, such as the epics, lyric poetry, drama and so forth. What is especially worthy of attention is that the Hindu religious sects, the common faith of the Indian populace, looked to Vedanta philosophy for the theoretical foundations for their theology.
The influence of Vedanta is prominent in the sacred literatures of Hinduism, such as the various Puranas, Samhitas, Agamas and Tantras. Many commentaries on the fundamental scripture of Vedanta, the Brahmasutra , were written by the founders or leading scholars of the various sects of Hinduism, and they are transmitted to this day as documents indispensable in the respective sectarian traditions. The majority of the traditional and conservative scholars in India today, called Pandits, are students of Vedanta, and an overwhelming number belong to the lineage of Shankara — five sixths of all Pandits, according to some authorities.
The Vedanta contained in the Upanishads, then formulated in the Brahma Sutra , and finally commented and explained by Shankara, is an invaluable key for discovering the deepest meaning of all the religious doctrines and for realizing that the Sanatana Dharma secretly penetrates all the forms of traditional spirituality. Then, after a time, he falls in sickness : those withwhom he lives together, first grumble at him, and he afterwards grumbles at them.
Then, at one time, it will be sufficiently large, with many resources. Then, at another time, his heirs divide it, or those who have no living steal it, or the king takes it away, or it is ruined in some way or other, or it is consumed by the conflagration of the house. Thus a fool, doing cruel acts, comes ignorantly to grief 2. People who are enveloped by delusion do not understand this he who gathers wealth will, :.
They men forsooth say, These are the vessels of '. The fool never knows the law. Therefore have done with them Sage, look this! He is called a hero who is not vexed by the hardships caused by control. He should not be angry because the householder gives him little. If turned off, he should go. Thou shouldst conform to the conduct of the sages. That for this viz. This is here for the enjoyment of some men.
But a wise man exerting himself, houseless, noble, of noble intellect, of noble perception recognises the proper moment for all actions. He should not accept, nor cause others to accept, or permit them. The last word is a frequent mistake for which adopted by the commentators. Being not seen in buying and selling, he should not buy, nor cause others to buy, nor consent to the buying of others. When he receives food he should know the quantity required.
This has been declared by the Revered One : he should not rejoice in the receipt of a gift, nor be sorry when he gets nothing. Having got much, one should not store it away ; one should abstain from things not requisite for religious purposes. With a mind different from that of common people a seer abandons these things. This is the road taught by the noble ones, well acquainted with which one should not be defiled by sin. Pleasures are difficult to reject, life is difficult to. The far- sighted one who knows the world, knows its inferior.
In the interior of the body he perceives the foul interior humours, he observes their several courses or eruptions. Therefore keep in your mind what I say. For sinful acts injure the bodies of living beings ; therefore they are increased by our abstaining from sin. To whom he applies the cure enough of that fool's affection 2; or he who has the cure applied, is a fool. This does not apply to the houseless. He who perfectly understands what has been said in the preceding lesson and follows the faith to be coveted, should therefore do no sinful act, nor cause others to do one.
Perchance he meditates a sin by an act against only one of the six aggregates of lives but he will be guilty of sin ;. Desiring happi- ness and bewailing much, he comes ignorantly to. Observing the pain of mundane existence, one should not act with violence. This is called the true knowledge and renunciation. He who ceasing from acts relinquishes the idea of property, relin- quishes property itself.
That sage has seen the path to final liberation for whom there exists no property. Because the hero is not careless, The hero is not attached to the objects of the senses. Being sounds and the other indifferent against. A sage adopting a life of wisdom, should treat his gross body roughly. What has been declared to be here the un- happiness of mortals, of that unhappiness the clever ones propound the knowledge.
As the law has been revealed for the full one, so for the empty one ; as for the empty. The commentators treat the passage as prose. Yet know, there is no good in this. But ascertain before what sort of man he is, and whom he worships. He is called a hero who liberates the bound, above,. He always conforms to all knowledge and renunciation the ;. The is neither bound nor liberated clever one he ;. He who sees himself, needs no instruction. End of the Second Lecture, called Conquest of the World. According to the commentator, the destruc- tion of karman.
First Lesson. The unwise sleep, the sages always wake. He knows the connection of the whirl of births and the current of sensation with love and hate. Not minding heat and cold, equanimous against pleasure and pain, the Nirgrantha does not feel the austerity of penance. Waking and free from hostility, a wise man, thou liberatest thyself and others from the miseries. Knowing the misery that results from action, The deluded and careless one returns to life ;. Examinlnor karman and the root of karman, viz. Look, Sir, at birth and old age here, Examine and know the happiness of the living, Thence the most learned, knowing what is called the highest good, He who has right intuition, commits no sin.
Desirous of pleasures they heap up karman, Influenced by it they are born again. Away with that fool's company, he increases his own unrighteousness. Cutting them off, he knows himself free from karman. Manifold, indeed, appear sinful actions ; therefore prove constant to truth Delight-! The same words occur in 2, 6, 2 ;.
Bhae occurs also in the former place in some MSS. He should not kill, nor cause others to kill, nor consent to the killing of others. Avoid '. And the hero should conquer wrath and pride, Look at the great hell as the place for greed. Therefore the hero abstaining from killing. Here now the hero, knowing the bondage. Knowing sorrow, should restrain himself. Having risen to birth among men.
He should not take the life of living beings. If we leave them out, the rest forms half a jloka. To complete the sentence the commentators add pramado na jreyase. What is the characteristic of a sage? Recognising the equality of all living beings , he appeases hisself. Knowing the highest good, one should never be careless ;. Guarding one's self, always prudent, one should pass life on the right road. One should acquire disregard of sensual enjoy- ment, being with a great one i.
So opine the Tathagatas. He whose karman has ceased and conduct is right, concluded the hemistich. What is discontent and what is pleasure? Giving up all gaiety, circumspect and restrained, one should lead a religious life. Man restraining thyself from! Mind '. That man i. This is the doctrine of the Seer who does not injure living beings and has put an end to acts and to sawsara. He who knows one thing, knows all things and he who ;.
Know- '. He who avoids one passion , avoids them all. Faithful according to the commandment of the Tlrthakaras , wise, and understanding the world. There are de- grees in injurious acts, but there are no degrees in control. Therefore, a wise man should avoid wrath, pride, deceit, greed, love, hate, delusion, conception, birth, death, hell, animal existence, and pain. And accordingly avoids wrath. Preventing the propensity to sin destroys former actions. Is there any worldly.
There exists none, there is none. The Arhats and Bhagavats of the past, present, and future, all say thus, speak thus, declare thus, sentient explain thus all breathing, existing, living, :. In the sequel we translate these. What has been said here, has been seen by the omniscient ones , heard by the believers , acknow- ledged by the faithful , and thoroughly understood by them.
Those who acquiesce and indulge in worldly pleasures , are born again and again.
Day and night exerting thyself, steadfast,' always having ready wisdom, perceive that the careless stand outside of salvation ; if careful, thou wilt always conquer. There are as many anasravas as there are. He who well understands these words and regards the world according to the instruction and understands , that which has been. I say this as a truth. There is nothing secure from the mouth of death. Anasrava is that by which asrava is avoided religious vows , and aparisrava that by which karman is acquired. He who seldom does cruel acts, seldom undergoes punish- ment.
Know about this : there is no wrong in. But those who are teachers, have said : You have wrongly seen, wrongly heard, wrongly acknowledged, wrongly understood, in the upper, nether, and sidelong directions, in all ways wrongly examined it, when you say thus, speak thus, declare thus, explain thus All sorts of living beings may be slain, or :. Know about this there is no wrong :. That a doctrine of the unworthy. I have consulted, ' tavam va, various reading.
All sorts of living beings should not be slain, nor treated with violence, nor abused, nor tormented, nor driven away. Know about this, there is no wrong in it. This isthe doctrine of the teachers. Third Lesson. One should mortify one's flesh in a low, high,. Difficult to. He who desires the current of karman, Is a fool who has not cut off the fetters of, nor conquered the connection with, the world.
For such as dwell In darkness, and are without knowledge, there is no success in faith. I think the Sanskrit prototype of sarae is saraka. But the dis-. Cutting off that 'whence bondage, cruel death, and dreadful pain,' and the '. Is there any worldly weakness in the Seer? Many entertain cruel thoughts against the world with a motive or without one they entertain cruel ;. Therefore he is near death. Because he is near death, he is far from liberation. But he who is neither near death nor far from liberation , considers the life of a slow and. A fool, doing cruel acts, comes thereby ignorantly to grief.
He who is clever, should not seek after sexual intercourse. But having done would be a second folly of the so, it weak-minded not own it. Repenting and ex- to. Also the passions , delights in bad fool, suffering for his acts here, mistaking that for salvation which is none. Many heretics lead the life of a hermit in order to avoid worldly sorrows and pains. Through the influence of ignorance and carelessness the fool never knows the law. For this passage is similar to the commencement of that. Ceasing from them, making an end of them, he perceives this is a favourable :.
This is the road taught by the noble ones, i When he has become zealous for the law, he should never be careless, knowing pain and pleasure in their various forms. Men act here on their own motives ; it has been declared that they suffer for their own sins. Neither killing nor lying, he should patiently bear unpleasant feelings when affected all. That man is called a true monk. He has to bear them afterwards as he has done before his conversion. The body is of a fragile, decaying nature, it is unstable, transient, uneternal, increasing and de-.
Perceive this as its true character. Thus some incur great danger. For him who contemplates the course of the world and does not acknowledge these attachments there. I think that annest may be an aorist of. Knowing that that which is well understood is well practised, man with thy eyes on! Among such men only is real Brahmanhood. He who has ceased to have worldly attach- ments , the houseless, suffers with patience a long time.
The careless stand outside, the careful lead a reli- life. He is a wise man who has heard and understood the word of the learned ones. Without partiality the law has been declared by the noble ones. Therefore I say : One should not abandon firmness, i Some who early exert them- selves, do not afterwards early slide back ; some who exert themselves, afterwards slide back those who ;.
That man also is of this description 2, who knowing the world as worthless neverthe- Knowing this, it has been '. Fight with this your body why should with! For the clever ones is. But a sage who walks the beaten track to libe- ration , regards the world in a different way. Knowing thus the nature of acts in all regards, he does not kill,' he controls himself, he is not overbearing. What you acknowledge as righteousness, that you acknowledge as sagedom mauna what you acknowledge as sage- ;. Of course, the attachment to sensual pleasures is meant. For a monk who has not yet reached discrimina- it is bad tion 1, going and difficult proceeding when he wanders alone from village to village.
Some men when going wrong will become angry when ex- horted with speech. Let that not be your case! Some- times, though a monk be endowed with virtue and walks in righteousness, living beings, coming in con- tact with his body, will be killed. If this happens through mere carelessness then he will get his punishment in this life but if it was done contrary ;.
The greatest temptation in this world are women. This has been declared by the sage. First troubles, then pleasures first pleasures, then ;. He should not speak of women, nor look at them, nor converse with them, nor claim them as his own, nor do their work. Careful in his speech and. He should maintain this sagedom.
Look there! Perceive the truth from a desire of a pious :. Some, bound by worldly ties , are followers i. How should he not despond who amongst followers is a non-follower? But that is truth beyond doubt, '. What he thinks to be true, that may, on consideration, appear to him true, whether it be true or untrue.
What he thinks to be untrue, that may, on consideration, appear to him untrue, whether it be true or untrue. But he. Thus the connection i. Regard this as the course of the zealous one, who stands in obedience to the spiritual guide. In this. As it would be unto thee, so it is with him whom thou intendest to kill. As it would be unto thee, so it is with him whom thou intendest to tyrannise over. As it would be unto thee, so it is with him whom thou intendest to torment.
In the same way it is with him whom thou intendest to punish, and to drive away. The righteous man who lives up to these sen- timents, does therefore neither kill nor cause others to kill living beings. Some not instructed in the true law make only a show of good conduct ; some, though instructed,. That is the doctrine of the clever one. He who is great and with- draws his mind from the outer world, should learn the teaching of the Tirthakaras through the teach- ing of the ai-arya by his own innate knowledge, ;.
A wise man should not break the commandment. Examining all wrong doctrines from all sides and in all respects, one should clearly understand and reject them. The three directions men- tioned in the text, are the three divisions of the universe. Objects of desire in each induce men to sin. The original is a jloka, noticed as such by the scholiast.
There is no sound, no colour, no smell, no taste, no touch nothing of that kind. End of the Fifth Lecture, called Essence of the World. He who is awakened amongst men, preaches ;. He praises the road to liberation for those who well exert themselves, who have forsworn cruelty, are zealous and endowed with knowledge. Thus some great heroes are victorious but, look, some others ;. Boils and leprosy, consumption, falling sickness, blindness and stiffness, lameness and humpbacked- ness, I.
Compare the dhutahgas of the Buddhists. Childers' Pali Diet. But it is not possible to restore one complete verse. Contemplating their i. This has been declared by the awakened ones. Men who are given to their lusts, come to destruc- tion through their weak, frail body. The fool ' works hard, thinking' that the unhappy one suffers many '.
Knowing that these many, diseases are should the afflicted search after remedies? Be attentive! The lamenting parents say to them who proceed on the glorious road : Do not '.
He should always maintain this knowledge! Though some know the misery of the world, have relinquished their former connections, have given up ease, live in chastity, and, whether monk or layman, thoroughly understand the law, they are not able to persevere in a religious life. The ill-disposed, giving up the robe, alms-bowl, blanket, and broom, do not bear the continuous hardships that are diffi-. And thus they do not cross the S3. Knowing and renouncing all lust, a devout man becomes a great sage when he breaks all bonds, thinking : Nothing N. Accounting for this treatment by his former sins, knowing pleasant and unpleasant occur- rences, he should patiently wander about.
This highest doc- trine has here been declared for men. Delighted with this, destroying that i. Here in our reli-. Therefore a wise man should lead the life of an ascetic by collecting pure alms or any alms in all sorts of If the food be of good or bad smell, '. The commentator translates it by lu- nta, to tear out the hair. This would be a rather difficult operation on the bald head of a zaina monk.
The commentator interprets it by j-ramawya. To a mendicant who is little 2 clothed and firm in control, it will not occur to. I shall wrap myself in them, i The unclothed one, who excels in this absti- nence , will often be molested by sharp blades of grass,by cold, heat, gnats, and mosquitoes. The unclothed one, who effects scarcity of his wants or of his karman , bears these and various other. He is fit for penance, as has been declared by the Revered One.
Understanding this in all respects and with his whole mind, he should perfectly know righteousness. He advances in his spiritual career and exerts himself As an island which never covered with water, so is the law is. They are free from desires, free from murder, beloved, wise, learned. For their benefit has been the exertion of the Revered One as birds ;.
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The disciples are thus regularly instructed, day and by the knowledge-endowed great heroes, night, receiving knowledge from them. Some, being se- duced from the calmness of the mind, adopt rough manners. Some, living in chastity, dispute the authority of the teacher , others hear and under- stand his words they intend to lead a godly life, ;. Others, being incensed by lusts. Walked means walked in righteousness. When they feel the hardships of a '. Standing low in learning or con- trol they will exalt themselves and say in their pride : I am learned. They speak harshly unto the passionless they upbraid them with their former ;.
Thou lovest unrighteousness, because thou art young, and lovest acts, and sayest Kill beings ;' thou killest them or ' :. Such a man thinks contemptuously very severe religion : A has been proclaimed. Sinking in opposition to the law, he is called murderer. Paliya, which we have here as in ' the passage above translated former trade,' is here explained by anushMana, exertion. He is an apostate ascetic! Knowing them, the learned, the wise, the steadfast hero will always be victorious through the right faith. Staying in or between houses, in or between vil- lages, in or between towns, in or between counties, a monk is attacked by murderers, or is subject to the hardships of a mendicant's life.
Oya, see note 2, p. With due consideration preaching the law of the mendicants, one should do no injury to one's self, nor to anybody else, nor to any of the four kinds of living beings. But a great sage, neither injuring nor injured, becomes a shelter for all sorts of afflicted creatures, even as an island, which is never covered with water. Having contemplated the beautiful law, the dis-. Therefore look at worldliness, ye men, fettered in fetters! Those whom lust conquers, sink ; therefore do not shrink from the hard control! I say: To friendly or hostile heretics one should not give food, drink, dainties and spices, clothes, alms-bowls, and brooms nor exhort these persons ;.
Confessing an individual creed, coming and going, he may give, or exhort to give, or do service but one should not accept anything from him , showing not the slightest respect. I have translated the words according to the scholiast, and supplied what he supplies but his interpretation can scarcely ;. When they thus differ in their there is. One, who knows and sees with quick discernment. One should either instruct the opponent in the true faith or observe abstinence as regards speech. For ye who live in a village or in the forest, or not in a village and not in the forest, know the law as it has been declared.
These are, i to kill no living being, 2 to speak no untruth, 3 to abstain from forbidden things theft and sexual pleasures. Nay, we abhor those who give pain to these bodies. Knowing this, a wise man should not cause this or any other pain to any creatures. A mendicant exert himself, or stand or sit may or lie in a burying-place or in an empty house or in a mountain cave or in a potter's workshop, A householder may approach a mendicant who stays in any of these places, and say unto him O long- :. A mendicant should thus refuse a householder of good sense and ripe age :. O long-lived householder I do not approve of thy!
I have given up this, because it not to be done. A mendicant should know it. A mendicant should well observe and understand this, that he may order the house-. This has been declared by the awakened ones :. Those impartially who are awakened, should not wish for pleasure, nor do harm, nor desire any forbidden things.
A person who is without desires and does no harm unto any living beings in the whole world, is called. A person who has no desires, cherishes pity. He who understands the doctrine of sin, is a mendicant who knows the time, the strength, the measure, the occasion, the conduct, the religious precept he dis- ;. The last only is treated of in the text. O long-lived Sr3.
O long-lived householder! I am not subject to the influences of my senses. But I cannot sustain the feeling of cold. Perhaps after the mendicant has spoken thus, the other kindles or lights a fire that he may warm or heat himself. But the mendicant should well ob- serve and understand this, that he may order him to show no such obsequiousness. Besides these kalpatraya , the monk possesses, 2.
The alms- bowl and the articles belonging to it are specialised in the fol-. Penance suits him. Knowing what the Revered One has declared, one should thoroughly and in all. This escape trials has been adopted by many who were. II, 5, 2, i. Suicide only puts off the last struggle for Nirvawa; but it is better than breaking the vow. Fifth Lesson. A mendicant who is fitted out with two robes, and a bowl as third article , will not think I shall :.
He should beg for robes which are allowed to be begged for he should wear ;. Knowing what the Revered One has declared, one should thoroughly and in all respects conform to it. As the com- mentaries are no check, and do not explain our passage, I have selected what seemed to me to be the most likely reading. Practising thus the law as it has been declared, one becomes tran- quil, averted from sin, guarded against the allure- ments of the senses.
This method has been adopted by many who were free from delusion it is good, wholesome, proper, ;. This is called the grahawai- shaa. The word abhika? This is called bhaktapanapratyakhyanamukti. Sixth Lesson. A mendicant who is fitted out with one robe, and a bowl as second article , will not think I shall beg :. He should beer for such a robe only as isallowed to be begged for, and he should wear it in the same state as he receives it. But when the hot season has come, one should leave off the used-up clothes one should be clad ;.
After having repeatedly examined and cleaned the ground, where there are no eggs, nor living beings, nor seeds, nor sprouts, nor dew, nor water, nor ants, nor mildew, nor waterdrops, nor mud, nor cobwebs he should spread the straw on it. The gamas are usually abbreviated, e.
A religious death is usually permitted only to those who have during twelve years undergone preparatory penance, consisting chiefly in protracted periods of fasting. The scholiast says that in our case the itvara is not enjoined for sick persons who can no longer sustain austerities ; but they should act as if they were to commit the itvara suicide, hoping that in five or six days the sickness would leave them, in which case they are to return to their former life. But if they should not get better but die, it is all for the best. This is the truth : speaking truth, free from pas- sion, crossing the samsara , abating irresoluteness, knowing and not being known, leaving this all truth frail body, overcoming all sorts of pains and troubles.
Even thus he will in due time put an end to existence. This has been adopted by many who were free from delusion it is good, ;. Then he may cover his privities with a piece of cloth 2. Anaked monk who perseveres in this conduct, sustains repeatedly these and other various painful feelings the grass pricks him, heat and cold attack :. A naked monk should be aspiring to freedom from bonds. Pen- ance suits him. Knowing what the Revered One has declared, one should thoroughly conform to it. Eighth Lesson. The eighth lesson, which is written in jlokas, describes the different kinds of religious deaths.
But the ascetic must ask and get the permission of his Guru, before he commits suicide. Knowing the twofold obstacles, i. If a mendicant falls sick, let him again take food. Becoming unattached internally and externally, he should strive after absolute purity. He should not for too long time give way to worldly feelings which over- come him.
Though these animals destroy the body, he should not stir from his position. Without any comfort and food, he should there bear pain. For he is blameless, who is well fixed and im- movable in his intention to die. Having attained a place swarming with insects, he should search for a clean spot. He should raise himself above sinfulness , and bear all pains. Having attained a place free from living beings, he should there fix himself He should thoroughly mortify his flesh, thinking :. Knowingas long as he lives the dangers and troubles, the wise and restrained ascetic should bear them as being; instrumental to the dissolution of the body.
This etymology, which is generally adopted by the rainas, is evidently wrong; for the Sanskrit prototype is the Brahmanical prayopa- gamana. He had crossed the sam- used sara for the rest of his life. This refusing of dress is in accordance with his doctrine, i More than four months many sorts of living beings. Since that time the Venerable One, giving up his robe, was a naked, world-relinquishing, houseless sage 3. Asked, he gave no answer he went, and did not transgress the right ;.
Thoroughly knowing karman , the Venerable One avoids sin. Whatever is sinful, the Venerable One left that undone he consumed clean food. He did not use another's robe, nor does he eat out of another's vessel. Disregarding contempt, he went with indifference to places where food was pre- pared. A sage should not rub his eyes nor scratch his body. Looking a little sideward, looking a little behind, answering little when spoken to, he should walk attentively looking on his path.
Either because it offers no difficulty, or because was wanting. Yet it is found in the MSS. It scarcely can be the A'urwi, for in the Bombay MS, of it the text of the verse in question is given, but no explanation beyond the words esa :. Tpnkkka, this is given as an answer to a question. Waking up again, the Venerable One lay down, exerting himself; going outside for once in a night, he walked about for an hour. Always well controlled, he bore the different sorts of feelings overcoming carelessness and pleasure, the ;. Brahma;2a wandered about, speaking but little. Strong in control, he suffered, despising all shelter.
Going outside once of a night, the Venerable One was able to endure hardships in calmness. Always well guarded, he bore the pains caused by. Many natives attacked him. Ceasing to use the stick i. Beating him again and again, many cried. The Venerable One was able to abstain from. Or is on his guard.
Whether wounded or not wounded, he desired not medical treatment, i Purgatives and emetics, anointingof the body and bathing, shampooing and cleansing of the teeth do not behove him, after he learned that the body is something unclean. Sometimes in the cold season the Venerable One was meditating in the shade. Sometimes the Venerable One did not drink for half a month or even for a month. Sometimes he ate stale food.
End of the Ninth Lecture, called the Pillow of Righteousness. In the sequel I have shortened this rather lengthy preamble. In the translation the plural is used throughout, in order to avoid the necessity of always repeating 'he or she. But with what they cannot eat or drink, they should resort to a secluded spot, and leave it there on a heap of ashes or bones, or rusty things, or chaff, or cowdung, or on any such-like place which they have repeatedly examined and cleaned.
A monk or a nun desiring to enter the abode of a householder for collecting alms, should not enter or leave it together with a heretic or a householder ;. I have rendered this word according to. This certainly is the whole duty of a monk or a nun which one should, instructed in all its mean- in. A monk nun on a begging-tour should not or a.
Therefore should a well-controlled Nirgrantha not resolve to go to any festival which is preceded or followed by a feast. When he has eaten or drunk at a festive enter- tainment, he might vomit what he has eaten , or not well digest it or some other bad disease or sickness ;.
A mendicant, having drunk various liquors, to- gether with the householder or his wife, monks or nuns, might not find the promised resting-place on leaving the scene of entertainment and looking. These are the causes to sin, they multiply con-. Therefore should a well-controlled Nir- grantha not resolve to go to any festival which is. But they should enter. The Kevalin.
Therefore should a well-controlled Nirgrantha not resolve to go to a much-frequented and vulgar entertainment to partake of it. A monk or a nun on a begging-tour should not resolve to go to a festival, preceded or followed by an entertainment, to partake of it, when they know that there will be served up chiefly meat or fish or roasted slices of meat or fish ; nor to a wedding breakfast in the husband's house or in that of the bride's father ; nor to a funeral dinner or to a family dinner where something is served up, if on their way there, there are many living beings, many seeds, many sprouts, much dew, much water, much mildew, many drops of water , much dust, and many cob- webs or if there have arrived or will arrive many ;.
But when they conceive that the milch cows are milked, the dinner prepared and distributed, then they may cir- cumspectly enter or leave the householder's abode for the sake of alms. Such families with which he is connected by kindred or through marriage, he intends ' to visit before the time of begging I shall get there :.
Jaina Sutras vol 1
When a monk or a nun on entering the abode of a householder sees that the first portion of the. The Kevalin says This is the reason Walk- : :. And if saliva, bile, matter, his body has become soiled, he should not wipe or. When a monk or a nun on a begging-tour per- ceives that the entrance of a householder's abode is secured by a branch of a thorn bush, they should. But they may circumspectly do so, after having got the owner's permission, and having examined and swept it. Therefore it has been declared to the mendicants :. This is the statement, this is the reason, this is the order, that he should not stand in the other mendi- cants' sight or opposite the door.
Knowing this, he should go apart and stay where no people pass or see him. When he thus makes the division, another might say: 'O long-lived. Knowing this, they should go apart and stay where no people pass or see them. But when they per- ceive that the other has been sent away or received alms, and has returned, they may circumspectly enter the house and address the householder. Sixth Lesson, When a monk or a nun on a begging-tour per- ceives that many hungry animals have met and come together search of food, e.
O long-lived one! He should after consideration say 'O long-lived one or, : sister! O do not wash or wipe your hand or pot or spoon or If you want to give me plate! It is therefore cold or hot water which is to be considered as containing life.
The same irregularity occurs in the next paragraph. Kevalin says This is the reason : The layman :. Thus he might hurt his foot or arm or breast or belly or head or some other part of his body or he might kill or frighten or bruise or ;. IMolesworth, Marathi and English Dictionary, s. The Kevalin says This is the :. But if it has long ago been used for washing, has acquired a new taste, has altered its taste or nature, and has been strained, it may be. Such-like water, whether taken by himself or given by the other, he may accept.
A monk or a nun on a begging-tour should not accept juice of mangos, inspissated juice of mangos, juice of wood-apples, citrons, grapes, wild dates,. The same holds good with regard to long pepper, ground long pepper, common pepper,. Explained by pippari. Pistia Stratiotes. The Kevalin says This is the reason Seeing him, : :. In due time he may enter other houses, and having begged for alms which are acceptable and given out of respect for. Why should I abstain from :. As thiswould be sinful, they should not do so but they ;.
As this would be sinful, they should not do so but ;. II v5. Knowing this, they should go there and after consideration say : '. But on the contrary he may accept it. Tenth Lesson. A mendicant, having collected alms for single many, might, without consulting his fellow-ascetics, give them to those whom he list; as this would be sinful, he should not do so. I have received, might take it himself; indeed, I '. Knowing this, he should go there where the other mendicants are , should put the vessel in his '.
A single mendicant, having received some food, might eat what is good, and bring what is dis- coloured and tasteless as this would be sinful, he ;. O sister! But if he has inadvertently accepted it, he should not. I now give it you ; consume it or divide it with!
This is a typical phrase, and seems rather out of place here. Eleventh Lesson. But he should show him which for a sick person saying : parts are not fit. Take it! There is some confusion in the text, which cannot easily be removed. Now, this is the first rule for begging food. That is the begging food. The hand and the vessel are wet. The rest as in the preceding rule. That is the second rule for. Now the mendicant should again know : is the hand not wet and the vessel wet or the hand wet and the ;.
If he collect alms with an alms-bowl or with his hand -, he should say, after considera- tion O long-lived one or, O sister! That is the third rule for begging food. That is the fourth rule for begging food. That is the fifth rule for begging food. That the sixth rule for begging food. Now follows the seventh rule for begging food. A monk or a nun may accept food of which only a part may be used, and which is not wanted by bipeds,.
That is the seventh rule for begging food. II, i, 7, 7 , if it be such as to require cleaning and taking out of little. These reverend persons, who follow these rules, and I who follow that rule, we all exert ourselves according to the commandment of the Cina, and we respect each other accordingly.
End of the First Lecture, called Begging of Food. The last word is elsewhere translated dadyat. The Kevalin says This is the reason Making : :. This is the reason: mendi- A cant living together with a householder's family may have an attack of gout, dysentery, or vomiting or ;. Then the mendicant mig-ht direct his mind to approval or dislike: 'Let them bully each other! Then the mendicant might direct his mind to approval or dislike: Let them kindle or light '. The commentators explain these two words, which are synonyms in the later language, as raw and '. Strings or forty strings or one string or strings of pearls, golden beads or jewels or a decked or orna- mented girl or maiden.
Thus the mendicant might direct his mind to approval or dislike ' Let her be :. Some householders are of clean habits and the mendicants, because they never bathe, are covered with uncleanliness they smell after it, they smell ;. Hence the householders, with regard to the mendicant, put off some work which otherwise they would have done before, and do some work which otherwise they would have put off. Then, afterwards, the householder might, for the sake of the mendicant, cleave or buy or steal wood, kindle or light, by rubbing wood on wood, the hre-body, and the mendicant might desire to dry or warm himself at, or enjoy, the fire.
It is not meet for. The householder will suspect the ascetic, the men-. O long-lived one you sin by overstaying the fixed! Here, in the east, west, north, or south, there. If the mendi- cantscome there while the other religious men do not come there, they sin by living in a place not frequented by other mendicants. In the east, west, north, or south there are faithful householders, viz.
See note 5 on p. If the reverend persons frequent such -like lodgings, viz. If the reverend persons frequent such-like lodg- ings, viz. If the reverend persons frequent such-like lodgings, viz. But if the lodgings, viz. Leumann informs me :. O long-lived one that lodg- '!
And he the mendicant delights in pilgrimage, religious exercises, study, begging for a bed, a couch, or other alms. Some householders who, having learned the requisites of a lodging- place, fit one out accord- '. The teacher says Well, he is an explainer of the truth , i :. By the second i t is meant the lodging. If a mendicant, at night or at the twihght, leaves or enters a small lodging, one with a small door, a low or crammed lodging, he should put forward first his hand, then his foot, and thus circumspectly.
The Kevalin says This is the reason : There :. He should ask '. The mendicant should explain them. If a monk or a nun wish to beg for a couch, they should not accept one which they recognise full of. If the couch is free from eggs, living beings, but is heavy, they should not accept such a couch. If the couch is free from eggs, living beings,. I am not certain whether I have found the correct meaning. The translation is conjectural. Now this is the first rule for begging for a couch. If a monk or a nun beg for a couch, specifying its quahty , viz.
This is the first rule. If a monk or a nun beg for a couch of the above- detailed description after having well inspected it,. This is the third rule. If a monk or a nun beg for a couch such as it is spread, either on the ground or on a wooden plank, they may use it if they get it ; if not, they. This is the fourth rule. They should then well inspect and sweep. Though I. When doing so,they should first wipe their body from head to heels then they may circumspectly ascend ;.
End of the Second Lecture, called Begging for a Couch. If there be some bypath, they should choose it, and not go straight on then they may circumspectly wander from ; village to village. The Kevalin says This is the reason : :. But the commentator here explains it, a journey of some days. The Guzerati commentator takes it for. If, on board, the boatman should say to the mendi- cant, '. He should first say to them : ' O long-lived householders!